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Traumatic brain injuries  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

Compiled by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu  興國編譯    

Chemical reaction in traumatic brain injuries

During the early stage of traumatic brain injuries, the sympathetic nervous system becomes excited due to the increase of the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor epinephrine. After that the body releases catechol-O-methyl transferase, an enzyme involved in metabolizing (degrading) catecholamines (like epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine)

Another issue is pituitary problem.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause impairment of pituitary hormone secretion, which may contribute to long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological disability. Therefore, evaluation of pituitary hormone secretion, including growth hormone, should be included in the long-term follow-up of all TBI patients so that adequate hormone replacement therapy may be administered.[2]

Hypopituitarism has recently been reported to occur in 3580% of patients in rehabilitation following head injury. Hypopituitarism causes adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency accounts for 3050% of these cases.[1]

Approximately 50% of patients with moderate or severe TBI have at least transient adrenal insufficiency which may be the result of pituitary insufficiency.

When cortisol, epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine become insufficient, the patients may experience depression, cold extremities, restless leg syndrome, lack of libido, urinary dysfunction, and memory deficit.

When  cortisol, thyroid hormone, epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and dopamine become insufficient, may cause syndrome of shenyangxu and liver qi stagnation.

Blood clots in the brain can cause long term effect on movements, eye sight, hearing, balance. It should be addressed early..

If syndrome of shenyangxu occurs herb formulae can be use and also see this page.


在創傷性腦損傷的早期階段,交感神經系統變得興奮是由於腎上腺素和去甲腎上腺素的增加。過後,身體會釋放兒茶酚-O -甲基轉移酶
最近有報導在頭部受傷康復之後垂體功能低下,30-50%患者發生腎上腺皮質功能不全。 [1]
約50 %的患者有中度或重度腦外傷至少有短暫的腎上腺皮質功能不全,可能是垂體功能不足所致的。

當皮質醇,腎上腺素,去甲腎上腺素和多巴胺變得不足, 會導致腎陽虛的症狀。患者可能出現肝氣鬱結,四肢發冷, 不安腿,性慾低下和記憶不良。


Ventricle edema

[1] Oxford Journals Medicine BJA Volume 96, Issue 1 Pp. 72-76  

[2]  2004 Jun;21(6):685-96.


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Last update: April 13, 2014; 1:36  p.m. LAH